Ch. 16 World War Looms 1931-141

 

Chapter 16 Objective:

To trace the rise of dictators, the beginnings of war, and the American response in the 1930s

Chapter 16 Summary:

 

America in World Affairs:

In the 1930s, the United States was very divided about its role in world affairs.  Some people said the United States needed to function as a leader; others thought it should remain isolationist.

Immigration and Migration:

During the 1930s, thousands of refugees from Nazi Germany and other totalitarian regimes came to the United States as immigrants.  Their numbers, however, were limited by quotas imposed by the Immigration Act of 1924.

Voting Rights:

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s election to a third term in 1940 broke the unwritten rule that had limited previous presidents to a maximum of two terms.  This led eventually to the 22nd Amendment, which imposed a constitutional limit of two terms for presidents.

Chapter 16 Vocabulary:

·         Joseph Stalin

·         Totalitarian

·         Benito Mussolini

·         Fascism

·         Adolf Hitler

·         Nazism

·         Francisco Franco

·         Neutrality Acts

·         Neville Chamberlain

·         Winston Churchill

·         Appeasement

·         Nonaggression Pact

·         Blitzkrieg

·         Charles de Gaulle

·         Holocaust

·         Kristallnacht

·         Genocide

·         Ghetto

·         Concentration Camp

·         Axis Powers

·         Lend-Lease Act

·         Atlantic Charter

·         Allies

·         Hideki Tojo

  

Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941

Chapter 16 Vocabulary Definitions:

1.       Fascism

·         A form of totalitarianism that stresses nationalism and the importance of the state over the individual

·         Germany, Italy, and Spain became fascist regimes in the lead up to WWII

2.       Neutrality Acts

·         America’s early attempts to stay out of Europe’s problems and avoid entering the war

·         Many Americans did not want to become entangled in another European war after WWI

3.       Appeasement

·         The willingness to give in to an aggressor’s demands in order to maintain the peace.

·         European countries attempted to appease with Adolf Hitler before WWII, but his demands continued to grow

4.       Blitzkrieg

·         A wartime strategy that involves fast strikes against the enemy, moving behind and flanking them to cut off supply lines

·         From the German: “Lightning War”

5.       Kristallnacht

·         The night many Jewish businesses, synagogues, and homes were vandalized and burned by the Nazis

·         Used as an excuse by Hitler to crack down harder on Germany’s Jews

·         From the German: “Night of Broken Glass”

6.       Concentration Camp

·         Prison/labor camps where Germany’s Jews, gypsies, and “undesirables” were sent during the holocaust

·         Unending labor, horrible conditions, starvation, and systematic murder resulted in over 6 million deaths by the end of WWII.

7.       Axis Powers

·         The three enemy nations during World War II

·         Germany, Italy, and Japan

8.       Lend-Lease Act

·         FDR’s plan to aid the Allied nations against Nazi Germany

·         Provided weapons, vehicles, and ammunition for Britain in order to fight the Nazis

·         Provided aid just short of actually entering the war

9.       Atlantic Charter

·         Joint declaration between FDR and Churchill outlining the goals of the war effort against the Nazis

·         Establishes the Allied nations

·         Eventually becomes a basis for the United Nations

10.   Allies

·         The friendly nations during World War II

·         Britain, Russia, The United States

  

Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941

Section 1: Dictators Threaten World Peace

 

Main Idea:

The rise of rulers with total power in Europe and Asia led to World War II.

Why It Matters Now:

Dictators of the 1930s and 1940s changed the course of history, making world leaders especially watchful for the actions of dictators today.

Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia

·         Failures of the World War I Peace Settlement

o   Germany resents blame for war, loss of colonies, border territories

o   New democracies flounder under social, economic problems

o   Dictators rise; driven by nationalism, desire for more territory

·         The Rise of Fascism in Italy

o   Fascism stresses nationalism, needs of state above individual

o   Benito Mussolini plays on fears of economic collapse, communism

o   1922 appointed head of government, establishes totalitarian state

·         The Nazis Take Over Germany

o   Adolf Hitler leader of National Socialist German Workers’ Party

o   Mein Kampf – basic beliefs of Nazism, based on extreme nationalism

o   Dismantles democratic Weimar Republic; establishes Third Reich

·         Militarists Gain Control in Japan

o   1931, Nationalist military leaders seize Manchuria (Northeast China)

The United States Responds Cautiously

·         Americans Cling to Isolationism

o   1935 Neutrality Acts try to keep U.S. out of future wars

  

Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941

Section 2: War in Europe

 

Main Idea:

Using the sudden mass attack called blitzkrieg, Germany invaded and quickly conquered many European countries.

Why It Matters Now:

Hitler’s actions started World War II and still serve as a warning to be vigilant about totalitarian government.

Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall

·         Union with Austria

o   1938, German troops march into Austria unopposed, unify with Germany

o   U.S., rest of world do nothing to stop Germany

·         Bargaining for the Sudetenland

o   1938, Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler

o   Sign Munich Agreement, hand Sudetenland over to Germany

o   Winston Churchill condemns appeasement policy, warns war will follow

o   Appeasement – giving up principles to pacify and aggressor

The German Offensive Begins

·         The Soviet Union Declares Neutrality

o   Stalin, Hitler sign nonaggression pact – will not attack each other

o   Sign second, secret pact agreeing to divide Poland between them

·         Blitzkrieg in Poland

o   Sept. 1939, Hitler overruns Poland in blitzkrieg, lightning war

o   Germany annexes western Poland; U.S.S.R. attacks, annexes east

o   France, Britain declare war on Germany; World War II begins

France and Britain Fight On

·         The Fall of France

o   German army goes through Ardennes Forest, bypassing Maginot Line

o   British, French trapped on Dunkirk; ferried to safety in UK

o   France falls; Germans occupy northern France

o   General Charles de Gaulle sets up government-in-exile in England

·         The Battle of Britain

o   Battle of Britain – German planes bomb British targets

o   Britain uses radar to track, RAF to defeat German planes

o   Unable to win, Hitler calls off invasion of Britain

  

Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941

Section 3: The Holocaust

 

Main Idea:

During the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically executed 6 million Jews and 5 million other “non-Aryans.”

Why It Matters Now:

After the atrocities of the Holocaust, agencies formed to publicize human rights.  These agencies have remained a force in today’s world.

The Persecution Begins

·         Jews Targeted

o   Europe has long history of anti-Semitism

o   Germans believe Hitler’s claims, blame Jews for problems

o   Nazis take away citizenship, jobs, property; requires Star of David on clothing

o   Holocaust – murder of 11 million people, more than half are Jews

·         Kristallnacht

o   Kristallnacht – Nazis attack Jewish homes, business, synagogues

o   About 100 Jews killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrested

§  Nazis blame Jews for causing destruction

Hitler’s “Final Solution”

·         The Condemned

o   Hitler’s Final Solution – slavery, genocide of “inferior” groups

o   Genocide – deliberate, systematic killing of an entire population

o   Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, unfit Germans

o   Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot them

·         Forced Relocation

o   Jews forced into ghettos, segregated areas in Polish cities

·         Concentration Camps

o   Many Jews taken to concentration camps, or labor camps

o   Those too weak to work are killed

The Final Stage

·         Mass Exterminations

o   Germans build death camps; gas chambers used to kill thousands

o   At first bodies buried in pits; later cremated to cover up evidence

·         The Survivors

o   About 6 million Jews killed in death camps, massacres

o   Some survive concentration camps

  

Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941

Section 4: America Moves Toward War

 

Main Idea:

In response to the fighting in Europe, the United States provided economic and military aid to help the Allies achieve victory.

Why It Matters Now:

The military capability of the U.S. became a deciding factor in World War II and in the world affairs ever since.

The United States Musters Its Forces

·         Moving Cautiously Away from Neutrality

o   1939, FDR persuades Congress to pass “cash-and-carry” provision

·         The Axis Threat

o   Germany, Japan, Italy sign Tripartite Pact, mutual defense treaty

§  Become known as Axis Powers

 “The Great Arsenal of Democracy”

·         The Lend-Lease Plan

o   FDR tells nation if Britain falls, Axis powers free to conquer world

§  U.S. must become “arsenal of democracy”

o   1941 Lend-Lease Act – U.S. to lend or lease supplies for defense

§  FDR uses “garden-hose” analogy

·         Supporting Stalin

o   1941, Hitler breaks pact with Stalin, invades Soviet Union

FDR Plans for War

·         The Atlantic Charter

o   FDR, Churchill issue Atlantic Charter – joint declaration of war aims

o   Allies – nations that fight Axis powers; 26 nations sign Declaration

Japan Attacks the United States

·         Japan’s Ambitions in the Pacific

o   Hideki Tojo – chief of staff of army that invades China, prime minister

·         The Attack on Pearl Harbor

o   December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor

o   2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded

o   Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged

·         Reaction to Pearl Harbor

o   Congress approves FDR’s request for declaration of war against Japan

o   Germany, Italy declare war on U.S.

o   U.S. unprepared to fight in both Atlantic, Pacific Oceans

  

Chapter 16: World War Looms, 1931-1941

Chapter 16 Study Questions:

 

Section 1

1.       What were Stalin’s goals and what steps did he take to achieve them?

2.       How did Germany’s and Italy’s involvement affect the outcome of the Spanish Civil War?

Section 2

3.       Why was the blitzkrieg effective?

4.       What terms of surrender did Hitler demand of the French after the fall of France in 1940?  What was General Charles de Gaulle’s reaction?

Section 3

5.       What groups did Nazis deem unfit to belong to the Aryan “master race”?

6.       How did some Europeans show their resistance to Nazi persecution of the Jews?

Section 4

7.       What congressional measures paved the way for the U.S. entry into World War II?

8.       Why did the United States enter World War II?

Assignments & Presentation

Ch. 16 Presentation

Ch. 16 Sect. 2 Main

Ch. 16 Sect. 2 Outline

Ch. 16 Sect. 2 Terms

Ch. 16 Sect. 3 Main

Ch. 16 Sect. 3 Outline

Ch. 16 Sect. 3 Terms

Ch. 16 Sect. 4 Main

Ch. 16 Sect. 4 Outline

Ch. 16 Sect. 4 Terms